Neurological Drug Classes- Anesthetics

Hypnotic- is a drug used to induce sleep via central nervous system depression. Sedative- is a drug used to provide a calming effect on the central nervous system. Analgesic- is a drug that relieves systemic pain Anesthetic- is a drug that permits a loss of nociception and awareness. Narcotic- is a drug that alters mental status; has pain relief and addiction potential Antipyretic- is a drug that decreases fever Dendrite- is the part of the neuron that receives the electric impulse; branched Axon- acts as a medium for dissociation of nerve impulse from a dendrite Synapse- is a gap between neuronal bodies Vesicles- cellular storage bodies for fluid Dysphoria- a feeling of malaise brought upon by a drug, downer, bad trip.
General anesthetics differ from other drug classes because they have no structure activity relationship. It is known that most anesthetics block sodium channel pathways and downregulate excitation of neuronal impulses. Activity of GABA pathways may also be enhanced. Halogenated hydrocarbons may be inadvertently metabolized in the liver through oxidative biotransformation. The intermediate products may then bind to certain proteins in liver cells, damaging their functionality and elevating inflammation biomarkers. The membrane expansion theory states that protein expansion in the lipid bilayer caused by anesthetic administration may block sodium channels. For general anesthesia, enflurane is a potent hypnotic and relaxant with a low MAC. Diazepam is a sedative, probably used to prolong the anesthesia and induce sleep. Succinylcholine essentially would diminish motor functionality, gag reflex as it would interfere with muscle response. Fentanyl would be used for post-operative pain. For signal conduction within neurons, the resting potential is -70 mV. Resting potential is the polarized gradient unchanged by any outside influence. It will remain constant until induced by extrinsic factors. This imbalance is in “equilibrium” with extraneural space. When an electric impulse is sent to said neuron, the action potential can depolarize this equilibrium. This causes an excess of charge outside the neuron.

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