According to the textbook, “history of African Americans” by Kelley, the 13th Amendment can be defined as the amendment adopted in 1865 to officially abolish slavery in the united States.(Kelley 240). Also, Kelley in history of African Americans defines the 14th Amendment as an amendment adopted and added to the U.S constitution in 1968 granting citizenship to freed people whereas the 15th amendment was the amendment that guaranteed African American men to vote. It was adopted in 1870. It is important to note that the 15 th amendment did not grant women the right to vote.(kelley 240).
These amendments brought several effects on black life. It is worth to note that after the adoption of these amendments, African Americans start to believe that freedom was on their doors. Kelley notes that “During this era, African Americans men ran for office,.,,,”(Kelley 240). However, although these amendments granted certain rights to African Americans, there were several limitations that came up as a result of adopting these amendments.
It is stated that after the civil war, the confederacy passed laws that applied only to African Americans. These laws were made to stop African Americans visions of freedom. These laws were known as black codes. For example some states required that African Americans to prove that they were employed by whites or risk arrest.(Kelley 242).
Another important point to note was that after the civil war, some white groups were set up especially in the south to terrorize African Americans for example the Ku Klux Klan which was formed in Tennessee in 1866. This group terrorized, and also made it almost impossible for African Americans to enjoy their rights. For example the Ku Klux Klan, targeted those African Americans who were active in the republican party. Such incidences, made it harder for African Americans to achieve freedom and exercise rights of a full citizen.