Artificial Moon

Evidence from the early space probes that Lunar gravitational gradient calculations were possibly flawed: The United States and the Soviet Union started to send probes to the Moon in the late fifties. Most of these initial probes met with miserable failure. It is posited here that the reason for these early failures were due to a miscalculation of the lunar gravitational gradient.While is would appear that the calculated mass of the moon was accurate enough to determine the surface gravity (1/6 of Earth’s gravity) this is not sufficient data required to properly calculate landing or impact velocities if the moon were assumed to be a hollow spheroid instead of a homogenous mass of rock throughout it’s volume.This is because in the case of a hollow spheroid the center of mass is much closer to the surface of the moon if in fact the moon is hollow than if it really were a homogenous mass of rock. The location of the center of mass of any celestial object is critical in determining it’s gravitational gradient, hence the final velocity of any object required to soft-land or otherwise come in contact with the moon would not be known unless the location of the center of mass is somehow determined.The first of three early successful probes, Luna 1, was launched by the Russians on January 2, 1959, was not required to land, but rather “Flyby” the moon at a distance of about 4600 miles. This is a sufficient distance from the surface where exact knowledge of the location of the center of mass is not critical to success.Luna 2 became the first manmade object to hit the moon. Here though, the probe was allegedly not designed to withstand impact, so no conclusions were drawn about the fact that it ceased to function thereafter.Luna 3 circled the far side of the moon, took some pictures, and sent them back to the earth. Strangely, Russian moon exploration came to a four year stop after these initial successes. The Russians were characteristically secretive about the data they collected.The American efforts were almost laughable at first. The Ranger space probes were designed to hard land on the moon. Ranger 3, launched on January 26, 1962 , missed it’s target completely and went into solar orbit, Ranger 4 hit the moon but did not send back any useful information. Ranger 5 missed the moon by 450 miles and the whole program was put on hold for two years.Ranger 6 allegedly had it’s electrical system burn out in flight and no pictures were sent.The Russians re-activated their space program, but their Luna 5, launched on May 9, 1964, crashed at full speed on the moon, when it was intended to make a soft landing. Luna 6 utterly missed the moon.Luna 7 crashed on the moon when it’s retro rockets fired too soon, which is a significant detail in relation to where one assumes the moon’s center of gravity to be located in relation to the surface.This is because of the fact that if the moon were assumed to be a homogenous rock, the braking required to make a soft landing could begin taking place at an earlier time than if the moon were a hollow spheroid of the same mass.The reason for this is that the accleration that gravity imparts to a landing spacecraft is lower if the center of mass is further away from the landing surface, therefore a slower burn rate of fuel is allowable to soften the landing. Hence an earlier ignition starting time may be allowed.Ignition start time is also one of the easiest flight parameters to control, much moreso than burn rates on any rocket motor.Miscalculation of the moon’s gravitational gradient cannot therefore be ruled out as a reason for the too early start time of Luna 7’s landing rocket motor.Luna 8 also crashed on the moon , but luna 9 was successful, and became the first spacecraft to soft land on the moon.Lunar probes from both the United States and the Soviet Union were more succesful after this. This cannot most likely be attributed to some sudden advance in the quality of the hardware or telemetry methods of both space programs, whereas it is much more likely to be a result of recalculation of the lunar gravitational gradient.end part 1 of 2 In part 1, I have attempted to demonstrate how evidence from the early lunar space missions showed that something appeared to be lacking in the required effort to land the unmanned spaccraft on the lunar surface. The totality of that evidence indicates that it is at least possible that the calculations of the lunar gravitational gradient were just plain erroneous for some reason.The lunar orbiting space missions demonstrated even more evidence that the moon might not be a solid homogenous rock throughout it’s volume.The most important evidence of this kind where this supposition was proven beyond all doubt was the discovery of the so called “mascons” or Mass Concentrations of Gravity that appear in some places around the lunar globe.These “mascons” were discovered by the Lunar Orbiter series of space missions of the late 1960’s. NASA reported that the gravitational pull caused by these mascons was so pronounced that the spacecraft dipped slightly and accelerated when flitting by the circular lunar plains.This showed that there must be some hidden structures of some kind of dense, heavy matter centered like a bulls eye under the circular maria.No scientist has ever accounted for how these mascons got there or could have been formed by random natural processes.There is other data from the manned Apollo lunar exploration series that makes a case for the idea that the moon might not be a natural object formed by random processes such as congealing from a dustcloud, billions of years ago.The most significant fact revealed from the samples of lunar soil and rocks brought back to earth by the Apollo astronauts is that the moon and earth cannot possibly share sthe same origins. The reason for this is the vastly different ages of the earth and moon as determined from samples of lunar material collected by the Apollo Astronauts.Over 99 percent of the moon rocks brought back turned out upon analysis to be older than 90 percent of the rocks that can be found on the earth. The first rock that Neil Armstrong picked up after landing on the Sea of Tranquility turned out to be 3.6 billion years old.Other rocks turned out to be even older, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6 and one alledged to be even 5.3 billion years old. The oldest rocks found on earth are only 3.7 billion years old, and the area that the moon rocks came from was thought by scientists to be one of the youngest areas on the moon!Scientists have generally offered three major theories to account for the moon`s orbit around our planet. All of these are in serious trouble.One theory was that the earth might have been born alongside the earth from the same cloud of gas and dust about 4.6 billion years ago. This theory had to be junked after the lunar rock and soil samples were analysed for their ages, as outlined above. Another theory that the moon had somehow been ripped out of the earth, from the pacific basin, perhaps. This explanation fails for the same reason.The third theory, that the moon had somehow been captured by the earth’s gravitational field is interesting, but still not satisfactory, that is if it is assumed that the moon is a “natural” object manuevered about by random gravitational processes. However, this theory is the most favored by scientists today.There are enormous objections to overcome in this last theory because of the extremely difficult celestial mechanics involved.For one thing, any object entering the vicinitey of the earth from elswhere in the solar system has an initial velocity imparted by the sun’s gravitational influence. The only confirmation that could possibly result in a rendzvous with the earth would appear to be one where the moon had originated somewhere within the orbit of the earth around the sun.The possibilty of this occuring as a result of some random natural process is staggeringly miniscule. The moon would have to have been “launched” from another planet (Venus or Mercury) or even from the Sun itself. If that were the case, then the lunar rocks and soil samples would be younger, not older than rocks found on earth.However, the probability that the moon came from elswhere in the solar system outside the orbit of the earth is even more remote, if not totally impossible. This is because that as the moon aproaches the earth from outside earth orbit it would be gaining speed, and as it got near the earth, a braking maneuver would be required to put it into the orbit that it has.A braking manuever can only be accomplished with thrusting systems under intelligent control of some kind.As NASA scientist Robin Brett aptly summarized, “It seems easier to explain the non-existence of the moon than it’s existence.” But of course, the moon exists. Why or how it exists remains a mystery.end part 2 of 2

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