What are the four ways infectious diseases are spread

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Infectious diseases are passed from person-to-person, animal-to-person, mother to unborn child and indirect contact. ChaCha! [ Source: http://www.chacha.com/question/what-are-the-four-ways-infectious-diseases-are-spread ]
More Answers to “What are the four ways infectious diseases are spread
What are four ways that infectious disease are spread?
The mixing of blood and other bodily fluids through brotherhood rituals is a possible cause. The same can also be said of consuming raw foods like fish and eggs. There are also airborne infections from working in hospitals without protectio…
How Are Infectious Diseases Transmitted?
Among them are contamination, sexual transmission, animal blood transmission, air borne transmission and direct contacts. Contamination of food, water and other eatables with infected materials like faces or urine causes the spread of disea…
How Is Infectious Disease Most Often Transmitted?
Infectious disease are transmitted by a carrier or a vector

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Help w/science questions?
Q: Ok #1) If you could travel to a plan with an atmosphere like that of early Earth,would you be able to survive? Explain.I know you cant I’m pretty sure but I dont know what to explain.Disease/viruses and stuff1)list four ways that infectious diseases can be spread.2)what is an antibiotic?what types of infectious diseases do an antibiotic cure?3.What is a vaccine?4.Why is washing your hands an effective way to precent the spread of some infectious diseases?
A: You could not survive because there was only a trace amount of oxygen in the atmosphere until about 2 billion years ago. There was a lot of methane and sulphur etc. from volcanic vents.See Miller-Urey experiments for more info, they duplicated an approximation of the atmosphere to show that organic molecules could form from inorganic material in this atmosphere.Transmission of disease:By air, as droplets in sneezes etc.By touch – dirty hands carry bacteria and disease.By ingestion (drinking contaminated water or food).By exchange of body fluid (kissing, having unprotected sex).Antibiotics are used to kill certain bacteria which cause disease. They are generally derived from other organisms such as fungi, which have a natural resistance to bacteria. Antibiotics are used to cure bacterial infections such as s0ome types of tonsillitis, blood poisoning, many sexually transmitted diseases. They are no use when you have a cold, as these are generally caused by a virus. Vaccines are used to fight diseases caused by viruses. They are generally made from dead viruses, which are used to alert the memory cells in your blood (lymphocytes), so that when you actually catch the disease, it can be effectively wiped out within hours, rather than days or weeks, during which time you can get very sick. Look up SmallPox as a good example of vaccination. Some common diseases for which there is vaccination are Measles, Mumps and Chicken Pox.Washing you hands stops transmission of infection by touch, and then ingestion, or if you rub your eyes etc. Just as important as washing is drying your hands. Wet hands carry 1000 times as many bacteria as dry hands.
Puppy socialization–Benefits vs Medical Risks?
Q: I received an article from a training friend. This is written by Judi Vogt DVM and would like to get your opinions on this….It has been documented that the most important time for socialization in a puppy occurs during the first three months of life. Properly socialized puppies will develop more stable, outgoing, friendly, and confident personalities then puppies that are isolated during this time. Many severe behavorial problems such as excessive fearfulness, shyness avoidance, fear biting, animal and people aggression can be diminished if a puppy is properly socialized at an early age. Puppies that are well socialized and who have developed a bond with ther owners are much more likely to remain as pets within that home, then those pups who have not.Behavorial problems are the number one reason young dogs are relinquished to shelters and are the number one cause of death (due to euthanasia) in dogs three years and under. Although a puppy’s immune system is still maturing during the first four months of age, the benefits of maternal immunity and proper vaccination makes the risk of infectious disease much smaller then death from euthanasia due to behavior problems. Puppy socialization classes can be structured in such a way as to minimize the potential of disease spread. Puppies enrolled in class should be required to have at least two Distemper-Parvovirus vaccines given two to four weeks apart prior to coming to class. These vaccines should be repeated every three weeks while the puppy is attending class. The puppies should also be rountinely dewormed and checked for external parasites prior to enrolling. The socialization class should be held at a venue that can be easily disinfected between classses. In addition, owners should be educated as to the signs of illness and infectious diseases and not allowed to bring a sick puppy to class.Current available vaccines are very successful in preventing illness in properly vaccinated pets. If a vaccinated pup does become ill from one of those viruses, they usually are not as sick as one that has not been vaccinated. In contrast, the window for socialization in puppies is relatively short and if the puppy is not exposed to a variety of new people, animals, situations, environments and other stimuli, they will likely develop behavorial problems that could impact them for the rest of their lives. This is why the benefits of a well constructed puppy socialization class will greatly outweigh the medicals risks from such an endeavor.—So what are your thoughts to this article?Would you enroll you pup in a class like this?Do you think the benefits outweigh the risks?For those that rescue dogs, do you find that behavorial problems are the reason they are turned in to shelters? Star for your contacts please..Krennao” I don’t see your point. You copy pasted an article and have not taken a class your self, you can find classes in your area by doing a search for dog trainers. A mother dog being left with out food and having a litter of puppies, doesn’t qualify for a behavior issue!”’WHAT are you talking about???? You are so lost…..ADD 2Melissa K Can you please explain the Q to Krennao….She apparently doesn’t understand it…ADD 3CurtisI am guessing that you train and work with hard GSD’s that are used for protection/Sch work…Would you apply the same form of correction to a Pug, Poodle, Husky etc….that is going to be a family pet?
A: Ah! One of my favorite questions on here!I agree 3000% with this article. It is ssssooooooo easy to prevent illness in a puppy. It is sssssooooooo hard to overcome fear in a pup that hasn’t been socialized and most never completely recover.I have been teaching puppy classes (pups 8 – 24 weeks when class begins) for over 10 years. We have not had one single case of a dog contracting an infectious illness – even parasites – from another dog in class. But I have seen plenty of pups who start class at 16 or 20 weeks who are meeting other dogs for the first time because the vet said to wait and the pups are terrified. They get better, but they never become as friendly as they could have been if socialized before 12 weeks of age. Thank goodness more vets are realizing that mental and behavioral health is as important as physical health and are advocating puppy classes.ADD: Berner Mom, I don’t think I can explain it to her! It appears that (as happens often on here) she just didn’t pay attention when she was reading the question. I don’t understand what she thought you meant! If she just reads the question and PAYS ATTENTION it should be obvious what you are asking.
Can someone summarize this article for me?? plz?
Q: here it is…Tamiflu no longer works for dominant flu strainU.S. health officials say almost 100% of the type A H1N1 strain showed resistance to the leading antiviral drug. So far, the influenza season has been mild.By Mary Engel February 4, 2009 A milder than usual U.S. flu season is masking a growing concern about widespread resistance to the antiviral drug Tamiflu and what that means for the nation’s preparedness in case of a dangerous pandemic flu.Tamiflu, the most commonly used influenza antiviral and the mainstay of the federal government’s emergency drug stockpile, no longer works for the dominant flu strain circulating in much of the country, government officials said Tuesday. Booster Shots: The Times’ health blogOf samples tested since October, almost 100% of the strain — known as type A H1N1 — showed resistance to Tamiflu.In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued new guidelines to physicians in December. Doctors were told to substitute an alternative antiviral, Relenza, for Tamiflu, or to combine Tamiflu with an older antiviral, rimantadine, if the H1N1 virus was the main strain circulating in their communities.Each flu season, several types of flu viruses circulate, and various ones can dominate in different regions and times. Only the H1N1 virus is showing signs of Tamiflu resistance, CDC officials said, speaking at an influenza conference in Washington. Other flu viruses currently circulating are not Tamiflu-resistant.Each year, the three most prominent flu strains — two type A’s and one type B — are chosen for the creation of the flu vaccine. Unlike last year, both of the A viruses matched this year’s vaccine, although the B did not, officials said.Public health experts recommend flu shots as the best way to avoid the virus.Health officials have long urged constraint in using antivirals out of fear that, as with antibiotics, misuse could lead flu viruses to develop a resistance, rendering the drug ineffective when it was truly needed.Tamiflu, which is known generically as oseltamivir, and Relenza, or zanamivir, came on the market 10 years ago. They were hailed as being more effective at treating the flu and having fewer side effects than the older antivirals rimantadine and amantadine. They were also lauded as being much less prone to develop resistance.Tamiflu and Relenza have been stockpiled by the federal government for treating the public in case of the emergence of a dangerous pandemic flu. Four times as many Tamiflu doses have been stockpiled as Relenza doses.Some microbiologists have argued that Tamiflu is more likely to develop resistance than Relenza. Therefore, they say, Relenza should make up at least 50% of the stockpiled antivirals.”There have been people, and I’m one of them, that have suggested that there be more of an equal stockpiling of oseltamivir and zanamivir,” said Dr. Anne Moscona, a pediatrician and professor of microbiology and immunology at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center.Both drugs reduce the replication of influenza viruses by blocking an enzyme called neuraminidase. To do so, they slip into a pocket in the enzyme. The pocket has to change shape to accommodate Tamiflu, but not for Relenza. If a mutation in the virus stops the pocket from changing shape, Tamiflu can no longer slip in to do its work, Moscona said.Tamiflu became the more popular drug because it can be taken orally in pill or liquid form, whereas Relenza must be inhaled and can’t be used by young children or the elderly.What mystifies infectious disease experts and microbiologists is that the Tamiflu-resistant strain now circulating appears to be a mutation that spread naturally, not as a response to antiviral use.”We don’t think it’s due to overuse,” said Dr. Anthony Fiore, a CDC epidemiologist. “There’s not as large amount of use of oseltamivir as there might be with antibiotics.”Influenza viruses are RNA-based, which are error-prone when replicating. This means they change rapidly, Fiore said. If a change occurs that confers an advantage of some sort, then it’s likely to be passed on.Viruses also swap genes among themselves, and one fear is that the resistance mutation will be passed on to other flu viruses, including the deadly H5N1 bird flu circulating in Asia.For now, H5N1 responds to Tamiflu, although it must be administered early. The virus is more than 60% fatal in humans.
A: Why don’t you read it and summarize it? American schooling is becoming a joke. Kids are becoming lazier and lazier and then they go to college and it’s a major wake-up call. If you really want someone to summarize it for you, use Microsoft Word auto-summarize. It highlights what it sees as the most important information.
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