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How long can viruses or bacteria live on surfaces

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It varies, depending partly on where the germ-laden droplets fall. Experiments with specific cold and flu germs have shown potential survival times ranging from a few minutes to 48 hours or more. ChaCha away! [ Source: http://www.chacha.com/question/how-long-can-viruses-or-bacteria-live-on-surfaces ]
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How long do microbes like bacteria and viruses live on surfaces i…?
The answer is probably not what you want to hear. Posted 08.22.2002 at 11:43 am 1 Comment How long do microbes like bacteria and viruses live on surfaces in the home at normal room temperatures? Art Dekenipp Alvin, Texas The answer is pr…

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how can you trust a doctor that took oath to the dead?
Q: You cannot trust a doctor that took oath to the dead after graduation. The person that died was killed by bacteria and eaten by maggots, encapsulated bacteria. The maggots of that dead person became miniature snakes under the earth and other creatures or critters. Not only that, mites and other vermins from the dead person crawled back to the surface of the earth assuming the person’s identity and claim not only the person’s identity but also the person’s descendency. So you have maggots and all types of critters to this day claiming to be hypocratus. So how in the world doctors can swear to keep his name alive. That is why all types of insects and vermins live in hospitals. That is why even though medicine technologies are advanced, diseases and deaths’ toll increase. That is why no matter how much knowledge is advanced, the result is the same. Intelligent people have taken oath to the dead, thereby become unintelligent.If these doctors make people healthy, how in the world that these bugs that eat the dead can eat? Taking oath to the dead is taking oath to the eaters of the dead, which are parasites that kill that person in the first place. So, you have a bunch of doctors working for maggots. Maggots eat decaying flesh. They don’t want people to live long. They want food, decaying food. Thus hospitals and clinic become hunting grounds for scavenging bugs: descendants of the dead.The dead die and whatever remains of them are recycled by bugs. They then used the dead in order to be worshiped. While we ride horses, the bugs ride us. While we create zoos, the bugs of the earth make the planet their zoos. They mimic and repeat everything we do. When we go to the clinic, the doctors, since they pledge to the dead, are full of parasites. These parasites don’t help the doctors make the patients better; they harm the patient unconsciously or not. Bugs don’t heal patients since they live on the dead. That is why all medicines are made with dead meat. These bugs are omnivorous. Medicine will never really advance due to doctors pledging themselves to the dead and not to the living. The parasites on the doctors and the pharmacists instead experiment on the living. When one cure is found, then millions of other diseases sprouted out of nowhere. The bugs that rule the planet eat flesh and the ones that live with us are used to people sacrificing to them and demand sacrifices. The ants are used to the Indians tying people on the floor and cutting their eyelids and put honey on them to welcome them t eat. These Indians poisoned by insect bites were manipulated by the insects to act this way. The viruses of the insects turned them into cannibals. The birds that live with us are the descendants of the birds that ate crucified people. All the animals living where there are religious people are animals whose descendants use to eat people or whose people that use to sacrifice human to them traveled. Bedbugs traveled with their human bloodbank. Wherever there are insects, there are lizards, snakes, frogs, and other such animals to feed on them. Wherever there are roaches, there are bedbugs, mites, and critters that serve the roaches. For example, American roaches are too big to be seen close to people during daytime, but its servants the mites are not. The mites carry to people the same disease that roaches do. In addition, mites cause more disease since they get access to your skin the whole day. Mites enter people’s eye lenses causing black spots behind the lenses. Mites cause seizure in addition to nerves and arteries’ breakdown. Gnats are relatives of mites and roaches. They live in plants, mostly flower pots plants, which has decaying compost. In the workplace, due to these flower pots plants, gnats carry diseases to people they bite. These houseplants house tiny insects that when they bite the face cause a painful spasm in the eyes.Doctors who pledge to the dead work for the dead: the bugs that eat the dead and that mimic the dead. They are the maggots, flies, gnats, fruitflies, roaches, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, and miniature snakes, called worms, snakes, and all things that eat the dead. So in a clinic and in hospitals, these animals rule the doctors, sending mites that can live on these doctors unseen. They are there to cause accidents and control the outcome of all diagnosed patients or surgical procedures. They control who live or die.Our deads are taken advantage of by these insects that assume their identities after eating them. People don’t go to heaven since they are physical. The bugs and viruses living in people are the spiritual entities, which call themselves “holy spirit” that control them all the days of their lives and after death control their relatives taking advantage of their emotional states, giving them dreams and fear. Once someone is spiritual, that person is a monster controlled by the monstrous bugs. Due to that the spiritual part of the
A: I can’t believe I am about to say this but I agree with Treat the Cause!
Need help writing a conclusion to my oral report (for chem). Would appreciate help or even a proofread?
Q: This is my oral report on nanotechnology (specifically, the nanoparticles in sunscreen). I’ve put astericks around the section I’m not happy with. I don’t like that part, because it’s too vague and I took too much from my book, but molecular manufacturing is incredibly hard to define. Maybe someone here could help with that?Otherwise, I’d really appreciate proofreading (British English) or help with writing a conclusion.Thank you so much.———————-Nanotechnology is a branch of engineering concerned with the development of technology at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular range – that is, 1 to 100 nanometers.
Though you may not have heard of it before, a nanometer is simply a form of measurement. It is precisely 1 billionth of a metre, and we use it to measure very small things. An atom is about 0.1 nanometers in diameter, and molecules range from about 0.15 nanometers in diameter to visible, so-called, macromolecules. Bacteria is substantially larger in size, at about 500 to 5000 nanometers, and viruses, the smallest “living” things, range only 10 to 50 nanometers.To help you understand this concept better, let me introduce the Buckminsterfullerene or C-60 “buckyball” molecule. The buckyball is a spherical-shape molecule which, in this case, contains 60 carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded to form stable hexagonal and pentagonal rings, linked together in a pattern identical to a football’s patches. A buckyball is 0.7 nanometers in diameter.Now visualise an actual football, which is roughly 22 cm in diameter. The Earth is 100 million times larger than that figurative football which, in turn, is 100 million times larger than a C-60 buckyball. So, you get the idea.To summarise, nanotechnology is the study and utilisation of very small things.But why is it important?The answer is “molecular manufacturing”.As we know, manufactured products are made from atoms and the properties of these products depend on how their atoms are arranged. But today’s manufacturing techniques are very crude at the molecular level.
It’s like trying to build LEGO with boxing gloves on – you can’t really piece the blocks together. At best, you can pile them up and make something resembling a cubist anthill. And this is where nanotechnology comes in:***Molecular manufacturing is the engineering of tiny machines, designed to construct objects by manipulating atoms or molecules to make “complete and highly advanced products”.***It’s not LEGO but, through molecular manufacturing, we could be able to piece together atoms – the fundamental building blocks of life.The applications of nanotechnology are endless. It has the potential to build cleaner, safer and longer-lasting products, for communication, medicine, transportation, industry, agriculture and home.And that’s what I’ll be talking about today – a way in which nanotechnology has already entered our day-to-day lives.Sunscreen.I’m sure you all know how to slip-slop-slap, but what about the science behind sun protection?Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are the main components of sunscreen. They are used, because they effectively absorb UVA – which is 98.7% of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth’s surface, and particularly harmful to skin.The problem, however, is that these compounds also reflect UV light, which causes the sunscreen to appear white. This is because the zinc oxide and titanium dioxide particles in regular sunscreen are larger than the wavelength of visible light.When zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are made smaller than the wavelength of visible light, they no longer reflect it, because the visible light is able to pass between the particles.Thus, sunscreen containing zinc oxide and titanium dioxide is transparent.
A: The goal of nanotechnology is to be able to manipulate materials at the atomic level to build the smallest possible electromechanical devices, given the physical limitations of matter.
Can someone help me with Biology?
Q: 1. Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary adaptation in bacteria? (1 point)They reproduce rapidly.They have a high rate of mutation.They cannot exist under adverse conditions.They can utilize substances harmful to other organisms.2. The name streptococcus tells you that the bacteria are arranged as _____. (1 point)pairs of round cellslong chains of round cellsgroups of spiralschains of rods3. Cyanobacteria are _____. (1 point)eubacterial heterotrophsphotosynthetic autotrophssalt-loving archaebacteriachemosynthetic autotrophs Figure 18-14. Virus injecting its nucleic acid into the host cell is shown in stage ____________________ of Figure 18-1. (1 point)ABCD5. Downy mildews and water molds are similar to fungi in that they both _____. (1 point)resemble fungidecompose organic materialsabsorb nutrientsall of these6. The plantlike protists with delicate shells that make up a large proportion of the phytoplankton in freshwater ecosystems are _____. (1 point)diatomsdinoflagellatessporozoansgreen algae7. Slime molds are said to be like animals during much of their life cycle because they _____. (1 point)look like animalsreproduce by making sporesmove about and engulf foodgrow on rotting leaves or tree stumps8. Dinoflagellates are able to spin by means of _____. (1 point)the cilia that emerge through their pellicletwo flagella at right angles to each othera pillbox shell that opens and closesa holdfast that attaches them to a rockFigure 19-29. Which structure shown in Figure 19-2 is used to extract waste? (1 point)ABCD Figure 19.310. Which of the protists shown in Figure 19-3 would use a pseudopod? (1 point)ABCD Figure 20-211. In Figure 20-2, which structure acts as an anchor? (1 point)ABCD Figure 20-312. Where are spores released in the organism shown in Figure 20-3? (1 point)ABCDShort Answer13. Compare and contrast provirus and retrovirus. (3 points)14. What are three different feeding relationships in which fungi are engaged? (3 points)15. How is almost every living thing directly or indirectly dependent on algae? (3 points)16. Euglenoids have characteristics of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. Explain. (3 points)17. Differentiate between the four major phyla of fungi. (4 points)18. How does the symbiotic relationship in a lichen benefit both organisms? (3 points)At first, it may seem that the fungus receives the greatest benefit from a mycorrhizal association. After all, a plant can produce organic compounds that the fungus can use. However, the fungus is also useful to the plant. For one thing, the fungal hyphae increase the absorptive surface of the plant roots. Table 20-2 records the inflow of phosphate in two kinds of onion plants—mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants.Inflow of Phosphate in Onion Plants IntervalDuration Inflow(pmol/cm/s) Trials (days) Mycorrhizal Non-mycorrhizal 1 14 0.17 0.050 2 7 0.22 0.016 3 10 0.13 0.042 Averages: 0.17 0.036 Table 20-219. In each of the trials recorded in Table 20-2, contrast the amount of phosphate that moved into an onion plant that is mycorrhizal with the phosphate in an onion plant that is non-mycorrhizal. What conclusion do you reach? (5 points)
A: 1. B2. D3. B4. Cant Answer5. D6. B7. C8. B9-12 Cant Answer15. Photosynthetic so produce oxygen for all respiring organisms to breathe16. Can intake organic (heterotophic characteristic) and inorganic (autotrophic) materials (carbon) for energy.17. Has to deal with the reproduction of each different type of fungi. Look up for further info. Two types are basidiomycoat and ascomycota
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