Genes and Genetics Quiz: Questions and Answers

Since Watson and Crick the world has gone DNA crazy. With the understanding of the importance of DNA, Genetics blossomed like a forest of cactus after the rain. Have you kept up with developments, have you kept up with the science of the times? Or do you know more about your jeans than about your genes?

The quiz you are about to take is about a bit more than just the basics. The questions are more than just bones. These questions will have a little meat on them. Multiple-choice questions will cover topics such as: What are genes, their chemistry and biological function? What are transcription and translation? What are genetic markers? Be prepared to find out how you measure up!

Let’s Begin!

1. What is a gene?

a. A DNA segment with specific chromosome location-a hereditary unit for its host’s genotype.
b. A hereditary DNA segment consisting of three alleles.
c. A collection of sequential chromosomes, contributing a hereditary characteristic.
d. That portion of a human cell regulating energy production.

2. What is the chemistry of a gene?

a. Macromolecular protein chains with pendant butyl groups joined by sulfonic linkages.
b. Optically active monosaccharide-polyvinyl copolymer derived from photo-synchronization.
c. Molecular DNA portion of “steps” of two linked bases joined at the sides by helical backbones of sugars/phosphates.
d. Cyclic ethers joined to backbones of oligomeric methylpurine.

(In DNA, the four bases are adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil.)

3. How can a gene contain information?

a. Scientists haven’t ascertained as of yet.
b. The specific length/radius and folding of the DNA provides the information.
c. The atomic isotopes in genes are different from those in other compounds.
d. DNA steps consist of one of two base pairs; ordering supplies the information, just as dots and dashes do for Morse code.

(Although the specific codes are known, such as that for blue eyes, why the code produces such results remains unknown.)

4. What is gene expression?

a. “Gene expression” refers to the characteristics genes produce such as curly hair or blue eyes.
b. Gene expression is the production of new material carrying the gene’s characteristic identification.
c. As a mother expresses breast milk to feed her newborn, genes give off cellular nutrients.
d. Gene expression describes geometric curvatures produced by dividing chromosomes.

5. What are the steps in gene expression?

a. Gene DNA temporarily unravels; a code transcription is made, complementing the original. Information is later translated.
b. There is only one step to expression: a lysosome circles a chromosome and squeezes a gene.
c. After unraveling, the gene code is carried by m-RNA and attached to the cell wall, where it converts to phospholipids.
d. Gene expression steps are akosis, bimbosis, certosis and sadosis.

6. What occurs during transcription?

a. A strand of DNA joins ends then separates at one gene end. A transcriptionist molecule notes the gene’s code.
b. The chain of DNA containing a gene completely unravels and splits, revealing its code and reuniting.
c. A molecule of DNA partly unzips and a molecule of RNA polymerase attaches. It builds a molecule of m-RNA based on the code.
d. The partly unraveled DNA is exposed and a molecule rewrites the code.

7. What happens during translation?

a. m-RNA joins a ribosome and creates a specific polypeptide, based on reading the code of three base groups at a time.
b. Translation refers to motions in x,y,z-space. This describes molecular motion from the gene to a new location.
c. Translation is the step that verifies transcription was accurately performed.
d. Translation is the cell’s magnetic checking to make sure organism DNA can survive in that location.

8. Which of these choices is not considered genetically related?

a. Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell anemia.
b. Down syndrome and thalassemia.
c. Sarcoidosis and hebephrenia.
d. Color-blindness and phenylketonuria.

9. What are genetic markers?

a. Genetic markers are chemical dyes that clearly label defective genes.
b. A genetic marker is a radioactive isotope that is gene-specific.
c. Electronic labels attached by scientists that point to missing, excessive or defective hereditary indicators.
d. Biochemicals found in DNA samples of genetically damaged individuals that serve as quick family identifiers.

10. Which of the following is not a type of genetic defect?

a. Aneuploidy.
b. Spindle disruption.
c. Frame shift mutations.
d. Incunabula.

11. The modification of genes such as for the manufacture of medicines by cutting and rejoining is called:

a. Gene dissection.
b. Gene reformation.
c. Gene splicing.
d. Gene switching.

(Contrary to popular conception, gene splicing doesn’t incorporate a blade, but involves chemical division.)

12. Genetic engineering is sometimes called:

a. Genetic manipulation.
b. Genetic disassembly.
c. Genetic mastication.
d. Genetic modification.

(Genetic modification of foods is very controversial, especially when animal genes are incorporated into vegetable DNA.)

What Does the Future Hold

When it comes to genes and genetics, the future promises many fine advances in both the healing arts and the medicines so often used to assist them. More to the point morally, what will the future bring as plants, animals and perhaps even humans may see their lines of distinction waver at the hands of the amoral, if not immoral, world of science?

Dolly the Sheep (Clone): Image Credit – National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Brooklyn College: Definition – Phenotype, Genotype

National Human Genome Research Institute: Genetic Mapping

Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research: Sarcoidosis

Answers: 1a, 2 c, 3 d, 4 b, 5 a, 6 c, 7 a, 8 c, 9 d, 10 d, 11 c, 12 d

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